RUTX11 Routing

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Main Page > RUTX Routers > RUTX11 > RUTX11 Manual > RUTX11 WebUI > RUTX11 Network section > RUTX11 Routing

The information in this page is updated in accordance with firmware version RUTX_R_00.02.04.1.

Summary

The Routing page is used to set up static and dynamic routes, routing tables and rules.

This manual page provides an overview of the Routing windows in RUTX11 devices.

If you're having trouble finding this page or some of the parameters described here on your device's WebUI, you should turn on "Advanced WebUI" mode. You can do that by clicking the "Basic" button under "Mode", which is located at the top-right corner of the WebUI.

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Static Routes

Routes ensure that network traffic finds its path to a specified host or network, both in local and remote network scenarios. Static routes are simply fixed routing entries in the routing table(s).

This section provides the possibility to configure custom static routes.

Static IPv4 Routes


The Static IPv4 Routes section displays a list of user defined static IPv4 routes and provides the possibility to add and configure new ones. The list is empty by default.

Networking rutos manual routing static routes static ipv4 routes v1.png

To add a new route and begin editing, simply click the 'Add' button. Refer to the table below for information on static route configuration fields.

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Field Value Description
Interface network interface; default: lan The zone where the target network resides
Target* ip4; default: none The address of a destination network.
IPv4-Netmask* netmask; default: none A netmask is used to divide an IP address into sub-networks (subnets). Combined together, the 'Netmask' and 'Target' values define the exact destination network or IP address to which this route applies.
IPv4-Gateway ip4; default: none A gateway can be any machine in a network that is capable of serving as an access point to another network. Traffic that matches this route will be directed over the IP address specified in this field.
Metric integer [0..255]; default: none The metric value acts as a measurement of priority. If a packet about to be routed matches two or more rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.
MTU integer [64..9000]; default: 1500 Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
Route Type unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | -- custom -- ; default: unicast Selects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:
  • unicast - most common type of route, simply describes a path to a destination.
  • local - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.
  • broadcast - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.
  • multicast - used for distribution of multicast traffic.
  • unreachable - sends an ICMP "unreachable" response to the source address when a request for a routing decision returns a "destination with an unreachable route type" message.
  • prohibit - used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a 'Network is unreachable' response the source address.
  • blackhole - packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.
  • anycast - provides a possibility to route incoming requests to a multiple different network locations.
  • -- custom -- - does not use any of the predefined route types.

*Additional notes on 'Target' & 'Netmask' fields:


You can define a rule that applies to a single IP like this:

  • Target: some IP
  • Netmask: 255.255.255.255

Furthermore, you can create target/netmask combinations that apply to a range of IPs. Refer to the table below for examples.

Target Netmask Network range
192.168.2.0 255.255.255.240 192.168.2.0 - 192.168.2.15
192.168.2.240 255.255.255.240 192.168.2.240 - 192.168.2.255
192.168.2.161 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.0 - 192.168.55.255
192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
192.168.2.161 255.255.255.255 192.168.2.161

Static IPv6 Routes


The Static IPv6 Routes section displays a list of user defined static IPv6 routes and provides the possibility to add and configure new ones. The list is empty by default.

Networking rutos manual routing static routes static ipv6 routes v1.png

To add a new route and begin editing, simply click the 'Add' button. Refer to the table below for information on static route configuration fields.

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Field Value Description
Interface network interface; default: lan The zone where the target network resides
Target ip6; default: none The address of a destination network.
IPv6-Gateway ip6; default: none A gateway can be any machine in a network that is capable of serving as an access point to another network. Traffic that matches this route will be directed over the IP address specified in this field.
Metric integer [0..255]; default: none The metric value acts as a measurement of priority. If a packet about to be routed matches two or more rules, the one with the lower metric is applied.
MTU integer [64..9000]; default: 1500 Sets the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size. It is the largest size of a protocol data unit (PDU) that can be transmitted in a single network layer transaction.
Route Type unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | unreachable | prohibit | backhole | anycast | -- custom -- ; default: unicast Selects route type. Each type specifies a different behavior for the route:
  • unicast - most common type of route, simply describes a path to a destination.
  • local - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used only for locally hosted IPs.
  • broadcast - routes of this type are added to the 'local' routing table and used by link layer devices that support the broadcast address principle.
  • multicast - used for distribution of multicast traffic.
  • unreachable - sends an ICMP "unreachable" response to the source address when a request for a routing decision returns a "destination with an unreachable route type" message.
  • prohibit - used to prohibit traffic to specified host or network. When a destination is prohibited, the kernel sends a 'Network is unreachable' response the source address.
  • blackhole - packets that match this type of route are discarded without any response.
  • anycast - provides a possibility to route incoming requests to a multiple different network locations.
  • -- custom -- - does not use any of the predefined route types.

Advanced Static Routes

The Advanced Static Routes section is used to configure policy-based routing infrastructures, which are usually used in more complex or specific networking scenarios.

Routing Tables


Routing Tables store network routes. Tables are checked before every routing decision until a matching route is found. Having multiple tables allows the user to set up a policy routing infrastructure. Policy-based routing is a technique where routing decisions are based on policies (rule) set by the user.

The 'Routing Tables' section displays user created routing tables. By default, the list is empty.

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To create a new table, look to the 'Add New Routing Table' section below. Enter an ID for the new table in the range of [1..252], enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. The new table should appear in the 'Routing Tables' list. Click the 'Edit' button next to it to begin editing.

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Refer to the table below for information on configuration fields for routing tables.

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Field Value Description
ID of Table integer [1..252]; default: none Unique numerical identifier for the table. A table can be invoked by the both its ID or name.
Name of Table string; default: none A custom name for the table. A table can be invoked by the both its ID or name.

Routing Rules For IPv4


Routing Rules provide a way to route certain packets with exceptions, i.e., in accordance to a rule. 'Routing Rules For IPv4' displays user defined routing rules. It is empty by default. To create a new rule, click the 'Add' button and begin editing by clicking the 'Edit' button located to the right of the newly created rule.

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Refer to table below for information on each configuration field.

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Field Value Description
Priority integer [0..65535]; default: none Controls the order of IP rules. Rules with a lower priority value will be checked first.
Incoming interface network interface | Any; default: Any Logical interface name for incoming traffic. Select 'Any' to make the rule apply to all network interfaces.
Outgoing interface network interface | None; default: None Logical interface name for incoming traffic. Select 'None' to ignore outgoing interface.
Source subnet netmask; default: none Source subnet to match the rule.
Destination subnet netmask; default: none Destination subnet to match the rule.
TOS Value to Match integer [0..255]; default: none The type of service (ToS) value to match in IP headers.
Firewall Mark integer [0..255] | hex [0x00..0xFF]; default: none Specifies the fwmark and optionally its mask to match. For example, 0xFF to match mark 255 or 0x0/0x1 to match any even mark value.
Invert matches off | on; default: off If enabled, the meaning of the match options (Firewall Mark, TOS Value, Source and Destination subnets) is inverted.
Matched Traffic Action Lookup Table | Jump to rule | Routing Action; default: Lookup Table When network traffic matches this rule, the device will take an action specified in this field:
  • Lookup Table - routes traffic in accordance with the specified routing table.
  • Jump to rule - specifies another routing rule to follow.
  • Routing Action - executes one of four predefined routing actions.
Lookup Table routing table; default: none Specifies a table for routing traffic that matches this rule. This field is visible only when 'Matched Traffic Action' is set to Lookup Table.
Jump to rule rule priority number; default: none Specifies a another rule to follow for traffic that matches this rule. This field is visible only when 'Matched Traffic Action' is set to Jump to rule.
Routing Action Prohibit | Unreachable | Blackhole | Throw; default: Prohibit When traffic matches this rule, the action specified in this field will be executed. This field is visible only when 'Matched Traffic Action' is set to Routing Action.

Dynamic Routes

Dynamic Routing provides the possibility to route data based on current network or device state instead of relying on static entries in the routing table. The RUTX11 device supports these dynamic routing protocols:

  • BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)
  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
  • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
  • EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
  • NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol)

Each protocol is described in the sections below.

BGP


The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies, or rule-sets configured by a network administrator and is involved in making core routing decisions.

General Settings


Below is an example of BGP General settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles the BGP protocol on or off
Enable vty off | on; default: off Toggles vty access on or off
Import config - Uploads an external BGP configuration

BGP Instance


Below is an example of BGP Instance settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles the BGP instance on or off
AS default: none AS number is an identification of an autonomous system. BGP protocol uses the AS number for detecting whether the BGP connection is an internal one or external one. [Required]
BGP router ID default: none The router id is used by BGP to identify the routing device from which a packet originated. default router ID value is selected as the largest IP Address of the interface.
Network default: none Add an announcement network(s)
Redistribution options default: none Route redistribution is a process that allows a network to use a routing protocol to dynamically route traffic based on information learned from a different routing protocol.
Deterministic off | on; default: off Compare MED between same AS ignoring their age

BGP Peers


Below is an example of BGP Peers section. You can create a new peer by clicking the 'Add' button.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles the BGP peer on or off
Remote AS default: none Neighbour's remote AS
Remote address IP; default: none Neighbour's remote IPv4 address

By pressing Edit button you can find more settings related to BGP Peer.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles BGP Peer on or off
Remote AS default: none Neighbour's remote AS
Remote address IP; default: none Neighbour's remote IPv4 address
Remote port default: none Neighbour's remote port
EBGP Multihop default: none Time to Live value
default originate off | on; default: off Announce default routes to the peer
Description default: none You can leave notes here

BGP Peer Groups


Below is an example of BGP Peer Groups section. You can create a new group by writing a name and pressing Add button.

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Field Value Description
Remote AS default: none Neighbour's remote AS

By pressing 'Edit' button you can find more settings related to BGP Peer Groups.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles the BGP Peer-Group on or off
Remote AS default: none Neighbour's remote AS
Neighbor address IP; default: none Neighbour's remote IPv4 address
Advertisement interval default: none Delay between updates for a neighbor session
Neighbor configuration default: None Configure a neighbor as Route Reflector or Route Server client.
Disable next hop calculation off | on; default: off Disable the next hop calculation for this group
Inbound soft-reconfiguration off | on; default: off Allow inbound soft reconfiguration for this neighbor
Disable connected check off | on; default: off One-hop away EBGP peer using loopback address

Access List Filters


Below is an example of Access List Filters section.

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You can add a new list by simply pressing Add button.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles the Access filter on or off
Peer bgp peer; default: first peer on list Applies the rule for the specified peer.
Action default: Permit Denies or permits matched entry.
Network default: Any Applies filter rule for this source network.
Direction default: Inbound If direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes.

RIP Protocol


The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support. A hop count of 16 is considered an infinite distance and the route is considered unreachable. RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

General Settings


Below is an example of RIP General settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles RIP Protocol on or off
Enable vty off | on; default: off Toggles vty access on or off
Import config - Uses imported RIP configurations.
Version default: 2 Specifies the version of RIP.
Neighbor default: none Neighbour IP addres

RIP Interfaces


Below is an example of RIP Interfaces settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles RIP Interface on or off
Interface network interfaces; default: loopback Network interface to be used with the RIP interface
Passive interface off | on; default: off Sets the specified interface to passive mode. On passive mode interface, all receiving packets are processed as normal and ripd does not send either multicast or unicast RIP packets

Access list filters


Below is an example of Access list filters settings section.

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Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes rip access list filters configuration v1.png

Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles the Access filter on or off
RIP interface RIP interface; default: first interface on list Applies the rule for the specified interface
Action default: Permit Denies or permits matched entry
Network default: Any Applies filter rule for this source network.
Direction default: Inbound If direction is Inbound, the access list is applied to input routes. If direction is Outbound the access list is applied to advertised routes.

OSPF Protocol


Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 for IPv4.

General Settings


Below is an example of OSPF General settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles OSPF Protocol on or off
Enable vty off | on; default: off Toggles vty access on or off
Import - Uses imported OSPF configurations
Router ID default: none Sets the router-ID of the OSPF process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be - it can be any arbitrary 32bit number

OSPF Interface


Below is an example of OSPF Interface settings section.

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By pressing the Edit button you can find more settings related to OSPF Interface.

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You should directed to a window such as this:

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles OSPF area on or off
Cost default: none The cost value is set to router-LSA’s metric field and used for SPF calculation
Hello Interval default: 10 This value controls how frequently (every n seconds) a 'Hello' packet is sent out on the specified interface
Router Dead Interval default: 40 This value must be the same for all routers attached to a common network
Retransmit default: 5 This value is used when re-transmitting Database Description and Link State Request packets
Priority default: 1 The router with the highest priority will be more eligible to become Designated Router. Setting the value to 0, makes the router ineligible to become Designated Router
Type default: none OSPF interface configuration type.
Authentication default: None Authentication method.

OSPF Area


Below is an example of OSPF Area settings section.

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To add a new OSPF area, look to the 'Add New Area' section. Enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. Your new area will appear in the 'OSPF Area' list.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles OSPF area on or off
Cost IP;default: none Specifies OSPF area

OSPF Networks


Below is an example of OSPF Networks settings section.

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To add a new OSPF network, look to the 'Add New Network' section. Enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. Your new network will appear in the 'OSPF Networks' list.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes ospf protocol ospf networks configuration v1.png

Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles OSPF network on or off
Network [a.b.c.d/m]; default: none This command specifies the OSPF enabled interface. If the interface has an address from the range a.b.c.d/m then enables OSPF on this interface so the router can provide network information to the other OSPF routers via this interface
Area OSPF area; default: none Specifies OSPF area

EIGRP


Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network for automating routing decisions and configuration.

General


Below is an example of EIGRP General settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles EIGRP network on or off
Enable logging off | on; default: off Enable logging of EIGRP
AS default: none EIGRP uses this number so that it makes sure it only talks to other EIGRP speakers that are in the same AS. For instance, if you have two routers, one with "router eigrp 1" and one with "router eigrp 2," then they would not form an adjacency
Router ID IP; default: none EIGRP router-ID in IP address format
Network IP; default: none The announcement network
Redistribution options default: none Route redistribution is a process that allows a network to use a routing protocol to dynamically route traffic based on information learned from a different routing protocol.
Neighbors IP; default: none Neighbour IP addres

NHRP Protocol


Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is a protocol or method that can be used so that a computer sending data to another computer can learn the most direct route (the fewest number of hops) to the receiving computer.

General Settings


Below is an example of NHRP General settings section.

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Field Value Description
Enable service off | on; default: off Toggles NHRP network on or off
Enable logging off | on; default: off Toggles NHRP logging on or off

Interfaces


Below is an example of NHRP Interfaces settings section. By default, it is empty.

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To add a new NHRP interface, look to the 'Add New Interface' section. Enter a custom name and click the 'Add' button. Your new interface will appear in the 'Interfaces' list.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces begin to edit v1.png

Field Value Description
Enable off | on; default: off Toggles interface on or off
NHRP Interface Configuration

By pressing the Edit button you can find more settings related to NHRP Interface.

Networking rutos manual routing dynamic routes nhrp interfaces interface configuration v1.png

Field Value Description
Enabled off | on; default: off Enables DMVPN client
Interface default: br-lan Interface which will be using NHRP
Network ID default: none Network ID of NHRP
NHS Dynamic | custom; default: none IP address of Next-Hop Server.
NBMA default: none Non-Broadcast Multi-Access(NBMA) network IP address
Hold-time default: 7200 Specifies the holding time for NHRP Registration Requests and Resolution Replies sent from this interface or shortcut-target. The holdtime is specified in seconds and defaults to two hours.
IPsec support off | on; default: off Use NHRP over IPsec
IP address IP; default: none Network ID of NHRP
NBMA IP; default: none IP address of Next-Hop Server
NHRP Mappings Configuration

Below is an example of the NHRP Mappings Configuration section.

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To add a new configuration click the 'Add' button and it will appear in the 'NHRP Mappings Configuration' list.

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Field Value Description
Enabled off | on; default: off Turns this mapping configuration on or off.
IP Address ip; default: none Network ID of another NHRP.
NBMA ip; default: none IP address of next-hop server.